RECOVERY OF DEBTS DUE TO BANKS AND FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS ACT, 1993 (RDDBFI Act, 1993)
RECOVERY OF DEBT DETERMINED BY TRIBUNAL
Section 25: Modes of recovery of debts:
“25. The Recovery Officer shall, on receipt of the copy of the certificate under sub-section (7) of section 19, proceed to recover the amount of debt specified in the certificate by one or more of the following modes, namely:—
(a) attachment and sale of the movable or immovable property of the defendant;
(b) arrest of the defendant and his detention in prison;
(c) appointing a receiver for the management of the movable or immovable properties of the defendant.”
Section 26: Validity of certificate and amendment thereof:
“26. (1) It shall not be open to the defendant to dispute before the Recovery Officer the correctness of the amount specified in the certificate, and no objection to the certificate on any other ground shall also be entertained by the Recovery Officer.
(2) Notwithstanding the issue of a certificate to a Recovery Officer, the Presiding Officer shall have power to withdraw the certificate or correct any clerical or arithmetical mistake in the certificate by sending an intimation to the Recovery Officer.
(3) The Presiding Officer shall intimate to the Recovery Officer any order withdrawing or cancelling a certificate or any correction made by him under sub-section (2).”
Section 27: Stay of proceedings under certificate and amendment of withdrawal thereof:
“27. (1) Notwithstanding that a certificate has been issued to the Recovery Officer for the recovery of any amount, the Presiding Officer may grant time for the payment of the amount, and thereupon the Recovery Officer shall stay the proceedings until the expiry of the time so granted.
(2) Where a certificate for the recovery of amount has been issued, the Presiding Officer shall keep the Recovery Officer informed of any amount paid or time granted for payment, subsequent to the issue of such certificate to the Recovery Officer.
(3) Where the order giving rise to a demand of amount for recovery of debt has been modified in appeal, and, as a consequence thereof the demand is reduced, the Presiding Officer shall stay the recovery of such part of the amount of the certificate as pertains to the said reduction for the period for which the appeal remains pending.
(4) Where a certificate for the recovery of debt has been received by the Recovery Officer and subsequently the amount of the outstanding demands is reduced or enhanced as a result of an appeal, the Presiding Officer shall, when the order which was the subject-matter of such appeal has become final and conclusive, amend the certificate or withdraw it, as the case may be.”
Section 28: Other modes of recovery:
“28. (1) Where a certificate has been issued to the Recovery Officer under sub-section (7) of section 19, the Recovery Officer may, without prejudice to the modes of recovery specified in section 25, recover the amount of debt by any one or more of the modes provided under this section.
(2) If any amount is due from any person to the defendant, the Recovery Officer may require such person to deduct from the said amount, the amount of debt due from the defendant under this Act and such person shall comply with any such requisition and shall pay the sum so deducted to the credit of the Recovery Officer :
Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to any part of the amount exempt from attachment in execution of a decree of a civil court under section 60 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908).
(3)(i) The Recovery Officer may, at any time or from time to time, by notice in writing, require any person from whom money is due or may become due to the defendant or to any person who holds or may subsequently hold money for or on account of the defendant, to pay to the Recovery Officer either forthwith upon the money becoming due or being held or within the time specified in the notice (not being before the money becomes due or is held) so much of the money as is sufficient to pay the amount of debt due from the defendant or the whole of the money when it is equal to or less than that amount.
(ii) A notice under this sub-section may be issued to any person who holds or may subsequently hold any money for or on account of the defendant jointly with any other person and for the purposes of this sub-section, the shares of the joint holders in such amount shall be presumed, until the contrary is proved, to be equal.
(iii) A copy of the notice shall be forwarded to the defendant at his last address known to the Recovery Officer and in the case of a joint account to all the joint holders at their last addresses known to the Recovery Officer.
(iv) Save as otherwise provided in this sub-section, every person to whom a notice is issued under this sub-section shall be bound to comply with such notice, and, in particular, where any such notice is issued to a post office, bank, financial institution, or an insurer, it shall not be necessary for any pass book, deposit receipt, policy or any other document to be produced for the purpose of any entry, endorsement or the like to be made before the payment is made notwithstanding any rule, practice or requirement to the contrary.
(v) Any claim respecting any property in relation to which a notice under this sub-section has been issued arising after the date of the notice shall be void as against any demand contained in the notice.
(vi) Where a person to whom a notice under this sub-section is sent objects to it by a statement on oath that the sum demanded or the part thereof is not due to the defendant or that he does not hold any money for or on account of the defendant, then, nothing contained in this sub-section shall be deemed to require such person to pay any such sum or part thereof, as the case may be, but if it is discovered that such statement was false in any material particular, such person shall be personally liable to the Recovery Officer to the extent of his own liability to the defendant on the date of the notice, or to the extent of the defendant’s liability for any sum due under this Act, whichever is less.
(vii) The Recovery Officer may, at any time or from time to time amend or revoke any notice under this sub-section or extend the time for making any payment in pursuance of such notice.
(viii) The Recovery Officer shall grant a receipt for any amount paid in compliance with a notice issued under this sub-section, and the person so paying shall be fully discharged from his liability to the defendant to the extent of the amount so paid.
(ix) Any person discharging any liability to the defendant after the receipt of a notice under this sub-section shall be personally liable to the Recovery Officer to the extent of his own liability to the defendant so discharged or to the extent of the defendant’s liability for any debt due under this Act, whichever is less.
(x) If the person to whom a notice under this sub-section is sent fails to make payment in pursuance thereof to the Recovery Officer, he shall be deemed to be a defendant in default in respect of the amount specified in the notice and further proceedings may be taken against him for the realisation of the amount as if it were a debt due from him, in the manner provided in sections 25, 26 and 27 and the notice shall have the same effect as an attachment of a debt by the Recovery Officer in exercise of his powers under section 25.
(4) The Recovery Officer may apply to the court in whose custody there is money belonging to the defendant for payment to him of the entire amount of such money, or if it is more than the amount of debt due, an amount sufficient to discharge the amount of debt so due.
(4A) The Recovery Officer may, by order, at any stage of the execution of the certificate of recovery, require any person, and in case of a company, any of its officers against whom or which the certificate of recovery is issued, to declare on affidavit the particulars of his or its assets.
(5) The Recovery Officer may recover any amount of debt due from the defendant by distraint and sale of his movable property in the manner laid down in the Third Schedule to the Income-tax Act, 1961 (43 of 1961).”
Section 29: Application of certain provisions of Income-tax Act:
“29. The provisions of the Second and Third Schedules to the Income-tax Act, 1961 (43 of 1961) and the Income-tax (Certificate Proceedings) Rules, 1962 as in force from time to time shall, as far as possible, apply with necessary modifications as if the said provisions and the rules referred to the amount of debt due under this Act instead of to the income-tax :
Provided that any reference under the said provisions and the rules to the “assessee” shall be construed as a reference to the defendant under this Act.”
Section 30: Appeal against the order of Recovery Officer:
“30. (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 29, any person aggrieved by an order of the Recovery Officer made under this Act may, within thirty days from the date on which a copy of the order is issued to him, prefer an appeal to the Tribunal.
(2) On receipt of an appeal under sub-section (1), the Tribunal may, after giving an opportunity to the appellant to be heard, and after making such enquiry as it deems fit, confirm, modify or set aside the order made by the Recovery Officer in exercise of his powers under sections 25 to 28 (both inclusive).”