Section 3 of Mediation Act, 2023-Definitions

The Mediation Act, 2023

Chapter-II Application

Section 3: Definitions.

*3. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,—

(a) “commercial dispute” means a dispute defined in clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Commercial Courts Act, 2015;

(b) “community mediator” means a mediator for the purposes of conduct of community mediation under Chapter X;

(c) “Council” means the Mediation Council of India established under section 31;

(d) “court” means the competent court in India having pecuniary and territorial jurisdiction and having jurisdiction to decide the disputes forming the subject matter of mediation, if the same had been the subject matter of a suit or proceeding;

(e) “court-annexed mediation” means mediation including pre-litigation mediation conducted at the mediation centres established by any court or tribunal;

(f) “institutional mediation” means mediation conducted under the aegis of a mediation service provider;

(g) “international mediation” means mediation undertaken under this Act and relates to a commercial dispute arising out of a legal relationship, contractual or otherwise, under any law for the time being in force in India, and where at least one of the parties, is—

(i) an individual who is a national of, or habitually resides in, any country other than India; or

(ii) a body corporate including a Limited Liability Partnership of any nature, with its place of business outside India; or

(iii) an association or body of individuals whose place of business is outside India; or

(iv) the Government of a foreign country;

(h) “mediation” includes a process, whether referred to by the expression mediation, pre-litigation mediation, online mediation, community mediation, conciliation or an expression of similar import, whereby parties attempt to reach an amicable settlement of their dispute with the assistance of a third person referred to as mediator, who does not have the authority to impose a settlement upon the parties to the dispute;

(i) “mediator” means a person who is appointed to be a mediator, by the parties or by a mediation service provider, to undertake mediation, and includes a person registered as mediator with the Council.

Explanation.—Where more than one mediator is appointed for a mediation, reference to a mediator under this Act shall be a reference to all the mediators;

(j) “mediation agreement” means a mediation agreement referred to in sub-section (1) of section 4;

(k) “mediation communication” means communication made, whether in electronic form or otherwise, through—

(i) anything said or done;

(ii) any document; or

(iii) any information provided,

for the purposes of, or in relation to, or in the course of mediation, and includes a mediation agreement or a mediated settlement agreement;

(l) “mediation institute” means a body or organisation that provides training, continuous education and certification of mediators and carries out such other functions under this Act;

(m) “mediation service provider” means a mediation service provider referred to in sub-section (1) of section 40;

(n) “mediated settlement agreement” means mediated settlement agreement referred to in sub-section (1) of section 19;

(o) “Member” means a Full-Time or Part-Time Member of the Council and includes the Chairperson;

(p) “notification” means notification published in the Official Gazette and the expression ‘‘notified’’ with its cognate meanings and grammatical variations shall be construed accordingly;

(q) “online mediation” means online mediation referred to in section 30;

(r) “participants” means persons other than the parties who participate in the mediation and includes advisers, advocates, consultants and any technical experts and observers;

(s) “party” means a party to a mediation agreement or mediation proceeding whose agreement or consent is necessary to resolve the dispute and includes their successors;

(t) “place of business” includes—

(a) a place from where the business is ordinarily carried on, and includes a warehouse, a godown or any other place where a party stores it’s goods, supplies or receives goods or services or both; or

(b) a place where a party maintains its books of account; or

(c) a place where a party is engaged in business through an agent, by whatever name called;

(u) “pre-litigation mediation” means a process of undertaking mediation, as provided under section 5, for settlement of disputes prior to the filing of a suit or proceeding of civil or commercial nature in respect thereof, before a court or notified tribunal under sub-section (2) of section 5;

(v) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made by the Central Government under this Act;

(w) “Schedule” means the Schedule annexed to this Act;

(x) “secure electronic signature” with reference to online mediation means, electronic signatures referred to in section 15 of the Information Technology Act, 2000; and

(y) “specified” means specified by regulations made by the Council under this Act.


*Enforced w.e.f. October 09, 2023 [Notification No. S.O. 4384(E) dated 09.10.2023].

Access complete Bare Act here and Notification and Circular here.

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